Top 10 Causes of Death

According to World Health Organization database list of top 10 causes of death is arranged in all over the world.  Causes includes Accidents, diseases and infections.

10. Road traffic accidents

1.21 millions deaths

2.1% of deaths

Human factors in accidents include all factors related to drivers and other road users that may contribute to a collision. Examples include driver behavior, visual and auditory acuity, decision-making ability, and reaction speed.

A 1985 report based on British and American crash data found driver error, intoxication and other human factors contribute wholly or partly to about 93% of crashes.

9. Diabetes mellitus

1.26 millions deaths

2.2% of deaths

Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

There are three main types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes: results from the body’s failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes: results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.
  • Gestational diabetes: is when pregnant women, who have never had diabetes before, have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

8. Tuberculosis

1.34 millions of deaths

2.4% of deaths

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infection, primarily in the lungs (a pneumonia), caused by bacteria calledMycobacterium tuberculosis. It is spread usually from person to person by breathing infected air during close contact. TB can remain in an inactive (dormant) state for years without causing symptoms or spreading to other people. When the immune system of a patient with dormant TB is weakened, the TB can become active (reactivate) and cause infection in the lungs or other parts of the body. The risk factors for acquiring TB include close-contact situations, alcohol and IVdrug abuse, and certain diseases (for example,diabetes, cancer, and HIV) and occupations (for example, health-care workers). The most common symptoms and signs of TB are fatigue, fever, weight loss, coughing, and night sweats.

7. Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers

1.39 millions of deaths

2.4% of deaths.

Lung cancer is a disease characterised by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue and, eventually, into other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, and is responsible for 1.3 million deaths annually. The most common symptoms are shortness of breath, coughing (including coughing up blood), and weight loss.

6. HIV/AIDS

1.78 millions of deaths

3.1% of deaths.

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It kills or damages the body’s immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV.

HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with an infected person. It may also spread by sharing drug needles or through contact with the blood of an infected person. Women can give it to their babies during pregnancy or childbirth.

The first signs of HIV infection may be swollen glands and flu-like symptoms. These may come and go a month or two after infection. Severe symptoms may not appear until months or years later.

5. Diarrhoea diseases

2.46 millions of deaths

4.3% of deaths.

Diarrhoea  is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel movements per day. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhea can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. In 2009 diarrhea was estimated to have caused 1.1 million deaths in people aged 5 and over and 1.5 million deaths in children under the age of 5.  Oral rehydration salts and zinc tablets are the treatment of choice and have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.

4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

3.28 millions of deaths

5.8% of deaths.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one in every of the foremost common lung diseases. It makes it tough to breathe. There are 2 main sorts of COPD:

  • Chronic bronchitis, that involves a long-term cough with mucus
  • Emphysema, that involves destruction of the lungs over time.

Smoking is that the leading reason for COPD. The additional someone smokes, the additional doubtless that person can develop COPD. However, some folks smoke for years and never get COPD. In rare cases, nonsmokers who lack a protein known as alpha-1 antitrypsin will develop emphysema.

Other risk factors for COPD are:

  • Exposure to sure gases or fumes within the workplace
  • Exposure to significant amounts of secondhand smoke and pollution
  • Frequent use of cooking fireplace while not correct ventilation

3. Lower respiratory infections

3.46  millions of deaths.

6.1% of deaths.

The lower respiratory tract is that the a part of the respiratory tract below the vocal cords. whereas typically used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection also can be applied to different kinds of infection as well as lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms embody shortness of breath, weakness, high fever, coughing and fatigue.

Lower respiratory tract infections place a substantial strain on the health budget and are typically a lot of serious than higher respiratory infections. Since 1993 there has been a small reduction within the total range of deaths from lower respiratory tract infection. but in 2002 they were still the leading explanation for deaths among all infectious diseases, and that they accounted for three.9 million deaths worldwide and six.9% of all deaths that year

2. Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease

6.15 millions of deaths.

10.8% of deaths.

Cerebrovascular disease could be a cluster of brain dysfunctions associated with disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain. Hypertension is that the most vital cause; it damages the blood vessel lining, endothelium, exposing the underlying collagen where platelets mixture to initiate a repairing method that isn’t continually complete and ideal. Sustained hypertension permanently changes the design of the blood vessels creating them slim, stiff, deformed, uneven and a lot of liable to fluctuations in blood pressure.

A fall in blood pressure throughout sleep will then result in a marked reduction in blood flow within the narrowed blood vessels inflicting ischemic stroke within the morning. Conversely, a sudden rise in blood pressure attributable to excitation throughout the daytime will cause tearing of the blood vessels leading to intracranial hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular disease primarily affects those who are elderly or have a history of diabetes, smoking, or ischemic heart disease. The results of cerebrovascular disease will embrace a stroke, or sometimes a hemorrhagic stroke. Ischemia or different blood vessel dysfunctions will have an effect on the person throughout a cerebrovascular accident.

1. Ischaemic heart disease

7.25 millions of deaths.

12.8% of deaths.

Ischemic heart disease, conjointly referred to as myocardial ischemia, could be a condition of the center where the center muscles are broken or don’t work as efficiently thanks to a reduced blood offer to the center. The decreased blood flow is most frequently caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries, a condition referred to as atherosclerosis. the danger of obtaining this disease will increase with age, and is additional prevalent among smokers than non-smokers. conjointly in danger are individuals with diabetes, high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and people who have family history of the disease.

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